May 2017
02

Programming Languages

Types of Programming Languages ?

Language is defined as a means of communication.  Computer or Programming language provides communication between man and the machine.  There are three types of programming languages.  Namely,

 

Programming Languages:

Machine Language

Assembly Language

High Level Language

 

Machine language

Machine language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer.  It does to need not translate program.  This is a sequence of instructions written in the form of binary numbers consisting of 1’s and 0’s to which the computers respond directly.

 

Use binary Coded instructions

1010  1100

1011 1100

100 0101

 

Advantage

It is faster in execution since the computer directly starts executing it.

 

Disadvantages

  •      It is difficult to understand and develop a program using machine language.
  •      Error correction is very difficult.

Assembly Language

 

Assembly language used mnemonics (Symbolic Code) to represent operation codes and string of characters to represent addresses.

A Program written in assembly language is used to be translated into machine language before the computer can execute it.  This is done by a special program called “Assembler” which takes every assembly language program and translate into its equivalent machine code.  The assembly language program is called source program.  While the equivalent machine language program is called object program.

 

Use symbolic code instructions

ADD Z

SUB A

STA 2500H

LDA 2700H

 

Advantages

The assemble language is easier to understand.

It is easier to correct errors and modify program instructions.

 

Disadvantages

It is machine dependent (A Program written for one computer might not work in other computer with different hardware configuration.)

Assembly language program is not as fast as machine language. It has to be first translated into machine (binary) language code.

 

High level language

High level languages are instructions, which are called statements that use brief statements or arithmetic expressions.  High level language statements reassembly the phrases or mathematics expression required to express the problem or procedure being programmed
ExpressionsUse brief statement or arithmetic

Basic X=Y+Z

COBOL: COMPUTE  X=Y+Z

 

Advantages

Readability

Easy debugging

Easy software development

 

Some of the high level languages are as follows:

C

C++

Java

 

program

 

Difference between machine, assembly and High-level language

Feature Machine Language Assembly Language High level Language
Form 0’s and 1’s Mnemonics Normal English
Machine Dependent Dependent Dependent Independent
Translator Not needed Needs/One Needs/One
Execution Time Less Less More
Memory Space Less Less More

 

Personal Computers

A small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for an individual user.

Personal computers are computers that are designed for use by people in their homes and offices.

Personal computers first appeared in the late 1970s.  One of the first and most popular personal computers was the Apple II, introduced in 1977 by Apple Computer, during the late 1970s and early 1980; new models and competing operating systems seemed to appear daily.  Then, in 1981, IBM entered the fray with its first personal computer, known as the IBM PC.  The IBM PC quickly became the personal computer of choice, and most other personal computer manufacturers fell by the wayside.  One of the few companies to survive IBM’s onslaught was Apple Computer, which remains a major player in the personal computer marketplace.

 

Internet

Internet is a network of networks that connect computers all over the world.  Network is an interconnection of systems to share data and information.  It is a collection of government, academic, commercial, individual, and other sites.

 

History of Internet

In 1969 the Department of Defense (DoD) USA created a small network of four computers called   ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork).  This network was set up for the military purpose.  The primary goal of ARPANET was to allow multiple users to send and receive information simultaneously over the same communication path.  The network operated with a technique called packet switching using TCP.

 

The ARPANET was successful and many universities joined the network.  This ARPANET was divided into two arts MILNET and ARPANET. MILNET was used for military related sites and ARPANET for non-military sites.  These two networks were connected together by using IP Internet Protocol.  The combined set of protocol is called TCP/IP.

 

During the 1970’s networks like the BITNET and the USENET came into being.  Around 1980’s NSFNET (National Science Foundation Network) was created.  This growing web was the birth of the Internet.

 

History of World Wide Web

The WWW is a series of servers all over the world that contains millions of pages of information.  In 1990, Tim Berners Lee of CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) developed the World Wide Web and several communication protocols.  The World Wide Web is a distributed system of interlinked pages that include text, picture.  Sound and other information.

 

In October 1994, Tim Berners Lee founded an organization called the World Wide Web CONSORTIUM (W3C).  The W3C is a standardization organization.  Web technologies standardized by the W3C are called Recommendations (e.g. HTML).  The three primary hosts of the W3C are MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), The European Research Consortium for Information and Mathematics (ERCIM) and Keio University in Japan.

 

Micro Software. NET / Morisot. NET

In June 2000, Microsoft announced its.  NET initiative, a broad new vision for integrating the internet and the web in the development, engineering, distribution and use of software.  The NET initiative permits them to create NET applications in any .NET compatible language (Eg. Jscript, .NET, C#, VB.Net).

 

Part of the initiative includes Microsoft, ASP.NET technology which allows programmers to create web bases, database-intensive client-server applications.

 

The Microsoft .NET framework is at the heart of the NET strategy.  This frame work executes applications and web services contain a class library and provide many other programming capabilities usedf to build NET applications

 

Java

Java is a platform independent and pure object oriented programming language.  It is developed by James Gosling and Patrick Naught on of Sun Microsystems, USA in 1991.  It is originally called OAK and this language was renamed as “Java” in 1995.  This language was designed to be simple and platform-independent (which was not dependent on any particular hardware or operating system) that had been developed with the main objective of making the programming for the internet faster and easier.  This language has bright future due do its four distinct features, namely object oriented, platform independent, Internet support and security.  The java programs developed exclusively for the internet, which are well known as applets can now be effortlessly distributed to many users over the internet.  The various important development of java are:

 

In 1990, the Sun Microsystems decided to develop special software that can be used to manipulate consumer electronic devices.

 

In 1991, the Sun Microsystems announced a new language named OAK, after using the most popular object oriented language C++.

 

In 1992, the green project team demonstrated the application of their language to control the home appliances using hand – held device with tiny touch sensitive screen.

 

In 1993, the green project team came up with the idea of developing web applets after World Wide Web (WWW) appeared on the internet. Using the web applets that could run on all types of computers connected to the internet.

 

In 1994, the green project team developed a web browser called Hot Java to locate and run applet programs or internet.

 

In 1995, a programming language called OAK was renamed as Java. Sun Microsystems had released new version of java called JDK 1.0. The various versions of java JDK 1.1, JDK1.2, JDK1.3, JDK1.4, JDK1.5, JDK1.6, were subsequently released.

 

In 1996, Microsoft and Netscape supported Java in their browsers.

 

Web Resources

A Web resource is any data that is available on the Web (or Semantic Web) by dereferencing a Web address.

 

 

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